The Urban Forum is
a Digital Space
for Dialogue

The Urban Forum on AngoNet is a digital space for dialogue between communities and local government in Angola about planning and development. This website is a platform for sharing information about basic services and infrastructure in municipalities throughout Angola.

The mapping and data resources here mark a moment in time: this website provides a benchmark so that a few years from now, residents can ask whether conditions have improved in their municipality and have concrete reference points to know whether they have.

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Municipal Atlas/Data

Interact with Municipal Forums

Forum

Cazenga

Eighty-six percent of households in Cazenga do not have a connection to the public drinking water network. Read More

Forum

Cacuaco

Sixty-nine percent of households in Cacuaco do not have a connection to the public drinking water network. Read More

Forum

Viana

Viana's population grew from 60,000 residents to 1 million between 2000 and 2008. Read More
Coming Soon: Kilamba Kiaxi Forum

Municipal Forums are groups of residents organized to advocate for services and collaborate with the government administration. Three municipal forums in Luanda currently maintain a website.


Mapping Luanda

Development Workshop tracks patterns of settlement, population, housing and other trends in Luanda with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) mapping technology.

The tools here overlay data about social and economic conditions in Luanda to maps of the city. It is important to compare social and economic indicators to the physical space of the city because understanding statistical information with respect to geography can inform how and where investments in infrastructure and services can be made.

Population Density Heatmap

Population Density by Neighborhood

Percentage annual population growth (2000 - 2008)

Structures added and demolished between 2008 and 2010

Percentage of new structures between 2008 and 2010 by neighborhood

Environmental vulnerability

Stand-pipes

Settlement Typologies

MDG Analysis - Indicator 1 (Overcrowding)

MDG Analysis - Indicator 2 (Tenure Security)

MDG Analysis - Indicator 3 (Durable Structures)

MDG Analysis - Indicator 4 (Access to Safe Water)

MDG Analysis - Indicator 5 (Access to Improved Sanitation)

MDG Analysis - Overall Ranking

Density measures how many people there are living in each hectare – a hectare is a little smaller than the size of a football field. While according the National Institute of Statistics the average density in Luanda is 12 people per hectare, the city has many peripheral areas that are undeveloped. In central areas like Cazenga, for example, the population density is over 300 people per hectare.

Density measures how many people there are living in each hectare – a hectare is a little smaller than the size of a football field. While according the National Institute of Statistics the average density in Luanda is 12 people per hectare, the city has many peripheral areas that are undeveloped. In central areas like Cazenga, for example, the population density is over 300 people per hectare.

Some areas of the city are growing faster than others. The population statistics presented in this map are based on a combination of historic census data and a mapping of rooftops throughout all of Luanda. The rooftop mapping categorized building types (i.e. house, apartment building, etc.) and then estimated the number of residents living in each building.

The population of Luanda has grown at a rate of 8% since 2000 – however, growth varies from bairro to bairro. Growth has been very fast-paced in areas like Cacuaco and Sambizanga, whereas peripheral areas like Viana are only starting to develop.

This map shows where new buildings have been constructed and where buildings have been demolished between 2008 and 2010. This map was created by Development Workshop using satellite imagery of Luanda to locate the rooftops of buildings. Patterns of construction and demolition were documented by comparing satellite images from 2008 and 2010.

This map shows where new buildings have been constructed and where buildings have been demolished between 2008 and 2010. This map was created by Development Workshop using satellite imagery of Luanda to locate the rooftops of buildings. Patterns of construction and demolition were documented by comparing satellite images from 2008 and 2010.

As open land as well as affordable land has become scarce, some residents have built housing near vulnerable areas such as lagoons, gullies, and streams that often flood. Typically, living within 100 meters of a lagoons, gullies, and streams exposes a building to potential flooding.

Few residents in Cazenga have access to the public piped water system, so many obtain water at stand-pipes. This map shows the locations of stand-pipes in Hoji ya Henda and the areas within 100- and 200-meter walking distances from them. While many stand-pipes have been constructed, many families still have to walk far to access water.

Areas of Luanda have varying characteristics as a result of differences in street alignments, building types and materials, levels of housing tenure, and access to services and infrastructure. Using satellite photography and on-the-ground observation, Development Workshop created a map of 11 settlement typologies. The majority of Luanda residents live in musseques. The most common category of musseque – old musseques – have 2.3 million residents. There are 165,000 people living in the old urban centre and 240,000 residents in rural settlements.

Development Workshop conducted household surveys throughout Luanda in order to rank the 11 settlement typologies in regards to physical conditions in the city that support or are a barrier to achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

The results of the survey are displayed in these MDG maps. The maps indicate the locations in the city where different service and infrastructure improvements are needed and the relative challenges of implementing these upgrades.

Population density varies greatly throughout Luanda at a very fine-grain scale. Even within a square-hectare area, densities may vary. Where densities are high, the need is greater for services and infrastructure. The potential for health risks increases with higher densities too. Generally, densities are high in the older areas of the city. Some musseques near the old urban centre have a population density of over 500 people per hectare.

Development Workshop conducted household surveys throughout Luanda in order to rank the 11 settlement typologies in regards to physical conditions in the city that support or are a barrier to achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

The results of the survey are displayed in these MDG maps. The maps indicate the locations in the city where different service and infrastructure improvements are needed and the relative challenges of implementing these upgrades.

This indicator measures both the level of tenure of housing by residents in the settlement typology and the degree to which public infrastructure can be installed given the condition of roads and rights of way. Old and peripheral musseques as well as rural settlements require reorganization before services can be installed, and residents in these areas face higher risks of eviction if tenure is not secure.

Development Workshop conducted household surveys throughout Luanda in order to rank the 11 settlement typologies in regards to physical conditions in the city that support or are a barrier to achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

The results of the survey are displayed in these MDG maps. The maps indicate the locations in the city where different service and infrastructure improvements are needed and the relative challenges of implementing these upgrades.

This indicator measures whether residents live in a settlement typology where housing is structurally stable and safe from wind and rain. Materials such as corrugated iron are indicators of limited financial resources.

Development Workshop conducted household surveys throughout Luanda in order to rank the 11 settlement typologies in regards to physical conditions in the city that support or are a barrier to achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

The results of the survey are displayed in these MDG maps. The maps indicate the locations in the city where different service and infrastructure improvements are needed and the relative challenges of implementing these upgrades.

This indicator measures whether residents live in a settlement typology where they have access to clean water. The majority of residents in Luanda obtain drinking water through the informal market. Water from the informal market is both expensive and not from safe water supplies.

Development Workshop conducted household surveys throughout Luanda in order to rank the 11 settlement typologies in regards to physical conditions in the city that support or are a barrier to achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

The results of the survey are displayed in these MDG maps. The maps indicate the locations in the city where different service and infrastructure improvements are needed and the relative challenges of implementing these upgrades.

This indicator measures whether residents live in a settlement typology where they have access to sanitation facilities. Luanda's sewage system only has coverage in the old urban centre. Some new planned developments also have sewage system. In most areas of Luanda, residents use septic tanks or pit latrines. Access to sanitation is inadequate in peripheral musseques and rural settlements.

Development Workshop conducted household surveys throughout Luanda in order to rank the 11 settlement typologies in regards to physical conditions in the city that support or are a barrier to achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

The results of the survey are displayed in these MDG maps. The maps indicate the locations in the city where different service and infrastructure improvements are needed and the relative challenges of implementing these upgrades.

This ranking is an average of the five Millennium Development Goals indicators. The higher the ranking, the more likely the area is in need of service and infrastructure improvements. In settlement typologies with a ranking of 3, a combination of these factors creates conditions in which residents are exposed to a high level of environmental vulnerability.

Persons per hecatre:
0-125,000
125,000-250,000
250,000-375,000
375,000-500,000
500,000-625,000
625,000+
Percentage:
N/A
-15-0
0-15
15-30
30-45
45-60
60+
Structures Added 2008 - 2010
Structures Demolished 2008 - 2010
Percentage:
0-3
3-10
10-20
20-100
100+
100m buffers
200m buffers
Standpost
Score:
1 - Low Density (Less than 100 people per hectare.)
2 - Medium Density (100 to 300 people per hectare.)
3 - High Density (More than 300 people per hectare.)
Score:
1 - Organized / Planned Settlements (Planned areas with allowances for public infrastructure and secure or provisional tenure.)
2 - Upgradable Settlements (Organized musseques with aligned streets where public infrastructure could be installed.)
3 - Unorganized Settlements (Settlements with unorganized urban layout that is difficult to upgrade with urban services; these need reorganization before installment of service infrastructure.)
Score:
1 - Ceramic Bricks and Tiles, Cement Blocks (The most expensive materials traditionally used in high-rise buildings in the city centre.)
2 - Adobe, Wood, Corrugated Iron (If well-maintained, provides sufficient protection from wind and rain.)
3 - Pau-a-pique, Corrugated Iron (for building), Thatch Roof (Pau-a-pique is a traditional mixture of wood and clay, but rarely used today because of lack of wood.)
Score:
1 - Connection to Public Water Pipes (Households obtain water through piped connections to the formal water supply network.)
2 - Public Water Taps / Manual Pumps (Households obtain water through water taps or standpipes.)
3 - No access to safe water (Households obtain water through the informal market, including purchasing water from cistern trucks, private taps or tanks, bottled water, or unprotected wells.)
Score:
1 - Connection to Sewage System and Regular Waste Collection (Household connected to sewage system, which has limited coverage in the old city centre; waste removal services at least once a week.)
2 - Septic Tanks / Improved Dry Pit Latrines and Irregular Waste Collection (Households has septic tank or pit latrine, which in Luanda are considered improved sanitation facilities; communal rubbish deposits are irregularly cleared by waste removal trucks.)
3 - Inadequate / No Facilities and No Waste Services (Households access sanitation facilities at uncovered pit latrines or public latrines; no waste collection and waste is disposed of by residents by burying or burning it.)
Score:
1 - 1.5 Low
1.5 - 2.5 Medium
2.5 - 3 High
Typologies:
Rural Settlements
Owner-built on Planned Sites
Bairro Popular
Social Housing Zones
Old Musseques
Transitional Musseques
Organized Musseques
Peripheral Musseques
Old Urban Centre
New Suburbs and Condominiums
Industrial Zone
(Source: Development Workshop Survey, 2012)

Key Luanda Data

The following data resources place Luanda in the context of Angola – helping to understand the growth of Luanda in relation to national-level development.

Since 2006, residents and civil society organizations throughout Angola have worked with the National Institute of Statistics to compile social, economic, and demographic data about the country's provinces. Development Workshop supports these activities.

This data can inform dialogue about patterns of urban development in Luanda and the needs for services and infrastructure for residents.

While reviewing this data, it is important to bear in mind an important assumption made by the National Institute of Statistics reports, which is that the population of Luanda is 2.8 million. This influences key indicators – such as the dependency ratio and number of doctors per 1,000 residents – since these are calculated in relation to the population of the city. The indicators would be different if, for example, the Luanda population were estimated more than 5 million – which, on the Data Dashboard, is the figure used by Development Workshop.

Throughout the survey below links to a World Bank data resource are included so that indicators for Angola can be compared to a map of the indicator at the global scale.


Population

About 30% of Angolan residents live in Luanda. Population growth in the country has been especially fast-paced since the 1980s – the total population has doubled since 1985.

Historic Angola Population

Source: Boletim de Estatísticas Sociais (2009)

During both the 1990s and the 2000s, the Angolan population grew by about the same number of people – 3.5 million.

Population Density by Province (2005 – 2008)

Source: Boletim de Estatísticas Sociais (2009)

Luanda is by far the area of Angola with the highest population density. Huambo is the second densest area. The average number of people living in a single hectare in Luanda is 12 – but because many of the peripheral areas of the province are still undeveloped, the population density in the center of the city is much higher, up to 500 people per hectare.

Angola Age Pyramid 2008

Source: Boletim de Estatísticas Sociais (2009)

Sixty percent of the Angolan population is below the age of 20. This is a very high proportion of the population that are youth – and many other African countries are experiencing this demographic trend. "Youth bulges" – as this trend is known – result from high fertility rates.

Back to top of Key Luanda Data

Vulnerability

Source: Boletim de Estatísticas Sociais (2009)

Dependency ratio compares the number of people who are of working age to the number of people who are either young or old who need to be provided and cared for.

The dependency ratio in Angola is 100.64. This is very high, but comparable to other African countries. Dependency ratios in Africa tend to be high because of the large numbers of youth.

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Vital Statistics

One measure of population growth are births and deaths. The rate of population growth is found by subtracting the total deaths per 1,000 people from the total births per 1,000 people. In Luanda in 2008, the rate of population growth was 9.2 new people per 1,000 residents.

Births and Deaths in Luanda (2005–2008)

Source: Boletim de Estatísticas Sociais (2009)

Because the population of Luanda is changing so rapidly, this data is challenging to come by. The data presented here is only partial – but nevertheless it shows how Luanda's population is growing. Also, the rate of population growth does not account for migration, which is a major driver of growth in Luanda.

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Education

The percentage of school-aged youth who are not enrolled in a school has declined in the last several years.

Schools Enrollment Angola (2005 – 2008) in thousands

Source: Boletim de Estatísticas Sociais (2009)

Youth In School Angola (2005 – 2008) in thousands

Source: Boletim de Estatísticas Sociais (2009)
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Health

Residents in Luanda have very low access to health facilities and services. There is only one doctor for every 4,000 residents in the city. Though this rate is actually higher than many other provinces in Angola, Luanda has many more people in need of health services.

Angola Doctors per 1000 people (2007)

Source: Boletim de Estatísticas Sociais (2009)

Angola Nurses per 1000 people (2007)

Source: Boletim de Estatísticas Sociais (2009)

Angola Health Facilities by Type (2007)

Source: Boletim de Estatísticas Sociais (2009)

Malaria is a widespread problem for residents of Luanda and Angola. Based on these statistics, one in four Luanda residents had malaria in 2007. However, it is important to bear in mind that this rate is based on the National Institute of Statistics's figure of 2.8 million for the Luanda population. If the rate is based on a population of more than 5 million, the cases of malaria are one in eight residents in Luanda.

Communicable diseases cases and deaths by province (2007)

Source: Boletim de Estatísticas Sociais (2009)
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Social Security

Between 8% and 15% of Luanda residents receive government pensions or insurance.

Contributors, Pensioners, and Insured by Province

Source: Boletim de Estatísticas Sociais (2009)
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Economy

The prices of food and transportation have increased the most significantly since 2003. Books too have become more expensive. The consumer price index is a measure of how much the costs of goods and services have increased relative to a baseline year – in this case, relative to 2003.

Consumer price index by category of goods

Source: Indice de Precos no Consumidor (Dec. 2009)
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